Pangio Anguillaris

Pangio Anguillaris

Table of Contents


Pangio anguillaris, commonly known as the eel loach or the longfin eel loach, is a species of freshwater fish belonging to the family Cobitidae. It is native to Southeast Asia, particularly found in the rivers and streams of Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. This small-sized fish has a distinctive elongated body, reaching an average length of 7-10 centimeters. It is known for its unique appearance, with a slender shape, long dorsal and anal fins, and a pointed snout.

Studying and understanding Pangio anguillaris is of great importance for several reasons. Firstly, this species plays a significant role in the freshwater ecosystems it inhabits. As a benthic fish, it actively forages on the substrate, contributing to the nutrient cycling and decomposition processes. By understanding its ecological role, we can gain insights into the functioning of these ecosystems and their overall health.

Secondly, Pangio anguillaris serves as an indicator species for water quality. Its presence or absence in a particular habitat can provide valuable information about the environmental conditions and the overall health of the ecosystem. Monitoring populations of Pangio anguillaris can help assess the impacts of pollution, habitat degradation, and other human-induced threats.

This article will delve into the various aspects of Pangio anguillaris, shedding light on its physical attributes, habitat preferences, behavioral patterns, and its ecological significance. Furthermore, it will discuss the threats this species faces and the conservation efforts being undertaken to protect it. By providing a comprehensive understanding of Pangio anguillaris, this article aims to raise awareness about the importance of conserving this unique and ecologically significant fish species.

With this thorough exploration of Pangio anguillaris, readers will gain a deeper appreciation for the intricate relationships between species and their environment, and be encouraged to contribute to the conservation efforts aimed at preserving the biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems.

Taxonomy and Classification

Scientific classification of Pangio anguillaris

Pangio anguillaris, commonly known as the eel loach or the fire eel, belongs to the family Cobitidae within the order Cypriniformes. Its scientific classification is as follows:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Actinopterygii
  • Order: Cypriniformes
  • Family: Cobitidae
  • Genus: Pangio
  • Species: Pangio anguillaris

Common names and synonyms

Pangio anguillaris is known by various common names in different regions. Apart from the eel loach and the fire eel, it is also referred to as the longfin eel loach or the zigzag eel. These names are derived from its elongated body shape and the distinctive pattern of dark, zigzag markings along its sides.

In addition to its common names, there are a few synonyms that have been used to refer to Pangio anguillaris in scientific literature. These include Acanthophthalmus anguillaris and Cobitis anguillaris. However, the currently accepted scientific name is Pangio anguillaris.

Pangio anguillaris is part of a diverse group of loaches that have evolved over millions of years. The Cobitidae family, to which it belongs, is known for its wide range of species and adaptations to various aquatic habitats.

The evolutionary history of Pangio anguillaris is still being studied, but it is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia, particularly in the freshwater systems of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. It is closely related to other species within the Pangio genus, such as Pangio kuhlii (Kuhli loach) and Pangio semicincta (Half-banded loach).

These related species share similar physical characteristics and behaviors, but each has its own distinct features and ecological niche. Understanding the evolutionary relationships between these species can provide valuable insights into the diversification and adaptation of loaches in different environments.

Studying the evolutionary history of Pangio anguillaris and its related species can also contribute to our understanding of the broader evolutionary patterns and processes within the Cobitidae family and the Cypriniformes order as a whole.

By examining the genetic relationships, morphological traits, and ecological adaptations of these loaches, researchers can gain a deeper understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped their diversity and distribution. This knowledge can have implications for conservation efforts and the management of freshwater ecosystems where these loaches reside.

In conclusion, Pangio anguillaris is a fascinating species with a rich taxonomic and evolutionary history. By delving into its scientific classification, common names, and related species, we can gain a deeper appreciation for the complexity and diversity of this remarkable loach. Understanding its evolutionary context is crucial for effective conservation strategies and furthering our knowledge of freshwater ecosystems.

Physical Characteristics

Size, Shape, and Coloration

Pangio anguillaris, commonly known as the eel loach, is a small freshwater fish species that exhibits a unique and elongated body shape resembling that of an eel. It typically reaches a maximum length of 10-12 centimeters, making it relatively small compared to other fish species. The body of the eel loach is cylindrical and slender, allowing it to navigate through narrow crevices and vegetation in its habitat.

In terms of coloration, Pangio anguillaris displays a fascinating range of patterns and hues. The base color of its body can vary from light brown to dark olive, often accompanied by irregular vertical bars or spots that can be either black or dark brown. These markings serve as a form of camouflage, helping the eel loach blend into its surroundings and avoid predation.

External Features

The eel loach possesses several distinctive external features that contribute to its survival and adaptation in its environment. It has a pair of small, rounded pectoral fins located just behind the gill cover, which aid in maintaining stability and maneuverability while swimming. Additionally, it has a long dorsal fin that runs along its back, providing precise control over its movements.

The scales of Pangio anguillaris are relatively small and embedded in the skin, giving it a smooth and streamlined appearance. This adaptation reduces drag in the water, allowing the eel loach to swim more efficiently. Its mouth is located on the ventral side of its head and is equipped with small, pointed teeth, enabling it to feed on a variety of small invertebrates and plant matter.

Internal Anatomy and Physiological Adaptations

Internally, Pangio anguillaris possesses a well-developed digestive system that allows for efficient processing of its varied diet. Its intestine is relatively long, enabling the eel loach to extract nutrients effectively from its food sources. The gills of the eel loach are highly specialized for respiration in aquatic environments, with a large surface area that facilitates the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

One remarkable physiological adaptation of the eel loach is its ability to tolerate low oxygen levels. It possesses a labyrinth organ, a specialized structure located above the gills, which allows it to extract oxygen directly from the air when oxygen levels in the water are insufficient. This adaptation enables the eel loach to survive in oxygen-deprived environments such as stagnant pools or during periods of drought.

Furthermore, Pangio anguillaris has a well-developed lateral line system, a series of sensory organs along its body that detect changes in water pressure and vibrations. This sensory adaptation helps the eel loach navigate its surroundings, locate prey, and avoid potential predators.

In conclusion, Pangio anguillaris exhibits a fascinating array of physical characteristics and physiological adaptations that contribute to its survival and success in its freshwater habitat. Its elongated body shape, unique coloration, and specialized external features allow it to navigate its environment effectively. Internally, the eel loach possesses adaptations such as a well-developed digestive system, specialized gills, and the ability to extract oxygen from the air. Understanding these physical characteristics and adaptations is crucial for appreciating the ecological role and conservation needs of Pangio anguillaris.

Habitat and Distribution

Natural range and geographical distribution

Pangio anguillaris, commonly known as the eel loach, is a freshwater fish species native to Southeast Asia. Its natural range encompasses various countries including Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Cambodia, and Vietnam. This highly adaptable species can be found in rivers, streams, and swamps within these regions.

Preferred habitats

The eel loach exhibits a preference for habitats with slow-moving or stagnant water. It is commonly found in shallow streams with sandy or muddy bottoms, as well as in marshy areas and flooded forests. These habitats provide the eel loach with necessary cover and abundant food sources, enabling it to thrive.

Environmental requirements

1. Water temperature

The eel loach is a tropical species that requires warm water temperatures ranging from 24 to 30 degrees Celsius (75 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit) for its survival and reproduction. Therefore, its distribution is limited to regions within the tropical climatic zone.

2. pH levels

The eel loach is adaptable to a wide range of pH levels, but it generally prefers slightly acidic to neutral conditions. It can tolerate pH levels ranging from 6.0 to 7.5. However, extreme fluctuations or highly acidic or alkaline conditions can have a negative impact on its health and survival.

3. Oxygen levels

Similar to most fish species, the eel loach requires well-oxygenated water to support its respiratory needs. While it can tolerate moderate levels of dissolved oxygen, it thrives in areas with higher oxygen concentrations. These conditions are often met in habitats with slow-moving water or abundant aquatic vegetation that helps oxygenate the water.

4. Water quality

The eel loach is relatively tolerant of varying water quality conditions, but it is commonly found in habitats with good water quality. It prefers clear or slightly turbid water with low levels of pollutants and suspended solids. High levels of pollution or excessive sedimentation can negatively impact its health and reproductive success.

To support the survival and reproduction of the eel loach, it relies on the availability of suitable habitats that meet its specific environmental requirements. The combination of slow-moving or stagnant water, warm temperatures, slightly acidic to neutral pH levels, and well-oxygenated conditions contributes to its successful colonization of various freshwater ecosystems in Southeast Asia.

Understanding the specific habitat preferences and environmental requirements of Pangio anguillaris is crucial for its conservation and management. By identifying and protecting key habitats, implementing measures to maintain water quality, and considering the impact of human activities on its natural range, we can ensure the long-term survival of this fascinating species. Conservation efforts should focus on preserving the unique ecosystems where the eel loach thrives, as well as raising awareness about the importance of maintaining healthy freshwater environments for the benefit of both the eel loach and other aquatic species.

Behavior and Reproduction

Feeding habits and diet

Pangio anguillaris, commonly known as the eel loach, is a benthic fish species that exhibits unique feeding habits and a diverse diet. Extensive research has shown that their feeding behavior is primarily opportunistic, allowing them to adapt to a variety of food sources in their natural habitats. They are known to consume a wide range of invertebrates, including small crustaceans, insect larvae, worms, and mollusks.

Studies have indicated that the feeding preferences of Pangio anguillaris can vary depending on the availability of food resources and environmental conditions. For example, in habitats with abundant insect larvae, they have been observed to predominantly feed on this food source. Conversely, in environments where crustaceans are more abundant, they tend to focus their feeding efforts on these organisms.

Furthermore, the eel loach has been found to exhibit a unique feeding behavior known as “substrate sifting.” This behavior involves using their specialized mouth structure to sift through the substrate, such as sand or gravel, in search of small invertebrates. This feeding strategy allows them to efficiently extract hidden prey items from the sediment, ensuring their survival even in resource-limited environments.

Social behavior and interactions with conspecifics

Pangio anguillaris is a social species that displays complex social interactions within its conspecific groups. They are known to form hierarchical social structures, where dominant individuals establish territories and subordinate individuals exhibit submissive behaviors. These social hierarchies are often established through agonistic interactions, such as fin displays and lateral displays, where individuals compete for resources and mating opportunities.

In addition to hierarchical structures, eel loaches also engage in cooperative behaviors. Research has shown that they exhibit group foraging, where individuals coordinate their feeding efforts to maximize their chances of capturing prey. This cooperative behavior not only enhances their feeding efficiency but also promotes social cohesion within the group.

Furthermore, Pangio anguillaris has been observed to exhibit schooling behavior, particularly during their reproductive season. Schools of eel loaches are often seen migrating to specific breeding sites, where they engage in courtship displays and mate selection. These schools provide protection against predators and increase the chances of successful reproduction.

Reproductive strategies and breeding behavior

The reproductive strategies of Pangio anguillaris are fascinating and have been the subject of extensive research. They are oviparous, meaning they reproduce by laying eggs. Breeding typically occurs during the rainy season when water conditions are optimal for successful reproduction.

During courtship, male eel loaches display elaborate behaviors to attract females. This includes fin displays, lateral displays, and body undulations. These displays not only serve as visual cues but also release pheromones that signal the readiness for mating.

Once a female has been courted and accepts a male’s advances, they engage in a unique reproductive behavior known as “nest building.” Male eel loaches construct nests using plant materials, such as leaves and twigs, which provide a safe environment for the eggs. The male guards the nest and ensures its integrity by repairing and maintaining it throughout the incubation period.

Parental care and development of offspring

Pangio anguillaris exhibits remarkable parental care, with both male and female individuals actively participating in the care and protection of their offspring. After the female deposits her eggs in the nest, the male fertilizes them and assumes the primary responsibility for guarding the eggs.

The male eel loach diligently fans the eggs with his pectoral fins, ensuring a constant flow of oxygen and preventing fungal growth. He also removes any debris or dead eggs from the nest to maintain optimal conditions for the developing embryos.

The incubation period for the eggs of Pangio anguillaris varies depending on environmental conditions, but typically lasts for several days. Once the eggs hatch, the male continues to provide parental care by guarding and guiding the fry to suitable feeding areas. This parental investment significantly increases the survival chances of the offspring, ensuring the continuation of the species.

In conclusion, Pangio anguillaris exhibits fascinating behavior and reproductive strategies that contribute to its ecological success. Their opportunistic feeding habits, social behavior, unique reproductive behaviors, and remarkable parental care all play crucial roles in their survival and the maintenance of healthy populations. Understanding these aspects of their behavior and reproduction is essential for effective conservation efforts and ensuring the long-term viability of this remarkable species.

Ecological Role

Trophic Level and Food Web Interactions

Pangio anguillaris, commonly known as the eel loach, plays a crucial role in the trophic dynamics of its ecosystem. As an omnivorous species, it occupies a unique position in the food web, acting as both a predator and a prey species. Its diet consists of a wide range of food sources, including small invertebrates, algae, detritus, and plant matter.

At the lower end of the food chain, Pangio anguillaris serves as an important prey item for larger predatory fish and birds. Its abundance and availability contribute to the sustenance of these higher trophic levels, ensuring a balanced ecosystem. Additionally, the eel loach’s ability to consume detritus and algae helps regulate nutrient levels and prevent excessive algal growth, maintaining the overall health of the ecosystem.

Impact on Ecosystem Dynamics

The presence of Pangio anguillaris has a significant impact on the dynamics of its habitat. As an active forager, it constantly interacts with its environment, stirring up sediment and facilitating the breakdown of organic matter. This behavior contributes to the overall nutrient cycling within the ecosystem, promoting the recycling of essential elements and maintaining the health of the ecosystem.

Furthermore, the eel loach’s feeding habits and interactions with other species influence the distribution and abundance of various organisms within its habitat. By consuming small invertebrates and algae, it helps control their populations, preventing outbreaks that could disrupt the balance of the ecosystem. This regulation of prey populations indirectly affects the abundance and distribution of other species, creating a ripple effect throughout the food web.

Role in Nutrient Cycling and Decomposition

Pangio anguillaris plays a vital role in nutrient cycling and decomposition processes within its ecosystem. As an omnivorous species, it consumes both living and decaying organic matter, including fallen leaves, dead plants, and animal remains. Through its feeding activities, the eel loach breaks down complex organic compounds into simpler forms, facilitating the release of nutrients back into the environment.

The decomposition of organic matter by Pangio anguillaris not only contributes to the recycling of essential nutrients but also helps maintain water quality. By consuming decaying matter, the eel loach helps prevent the accumulation of organic debris, which can lead to oxygen depletion and the release of harmful substances into the water. Its role in nutrient cycling and decomposition processes is crucial for the overall health and stability of the ecosystem.

In conclusion, Pangio anguillaris, with its unique position in the food web and its role in nutrient cycling and decomposition, plays a vital ecological role. As a predator and prey species, it contributes to the trophic dynamics of its ecosystem, ensuring a balanced food web. Its feeding habits and interactions with other organisms influence ecosystem dynamics, regulating prey populations and indirectly affecting the distribution of other species. Moreover, the eel loach’s role in nutrient cycling and decomposition processes helps maintain water quality and the overall health of the ecosystem. Understanding and conserving Pangio anguillaris is crucial for the preservation of its ecological role and the sustainability of its habitat.

Threats and Conservation

Human-induced threats (e.g., habitat destruction, pollution)

Pangio anguillaris, commonly known as the eel loach, faces numerous human-induced threats that have significantly impacted its population and habitat. One of the primary threats is habitat destruction, resulting from activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and the construction of dams. These activities lead to the degradation and loss of the eel loach’s natural habitats, including rivers, streams, and swamps, which are crucial for their survival.

Pollution also poses a significant threat to Pangio anguillaris. Industrial and agricultural activities release harmful chemicals and pollutants into water bodies, affecting the quality of their habitats. Pesticides, fertilizers, and other pollutants can contaminate the water, disrupt the eel loach’s reproductive cycles, and even lead to the death of individuals. Additionally, pollution reduces the availability of suitable food sources, further exacerbating the challenges faced by this species.

Overfishing and exploitation

Overfishing and exploitation have also contributed to the decline of Pangio anguillaris populations. Due to their unique physical characteristics and popularity in the aquarium trade, eel loaches are often targeted for collection and sale. Unregulated and unsustainable fishing practices have resulted in the depletion of their populations in certain areas, further threatening their survival.

The demand for Pangio anguillaris in the aquarium trade has led to the establishment of illegal and unregulated capture and trade networks. These activities not only disrupt the natural balance of their habitats but also contribute to the spread of diseases and the introduction of non-native species, which can have detrimental effects on the eel loach and other native aquatic organisms.

Conservation efforts and initiatives

Recognizing the urgent need to protect Pangio anguillaris, various conservation efforts and initiatives have been implemented. These initiatives aim to address the threats faced by the species and promote its long-term survival.

One key conservation strategy is the establishment of protected areas and reserves that encompass the eel loach’s natural habitats. These protected areas provide a safe haven for the species, allowing them to reproduce and thrive without disturbance. Additionally, efforts are being made to restore degraded habitats and create artificial breeding sites to support the recovery of Pangio anguillaris populations.

Collaborative research and monitoring programs have been initiated to gather essential data on the species’ population dynamics, habitat requirements, and behavior. This information is crucial for developing effective conservation strategies and guiding management decisions.

Pangio anguillaris is recognized as a species of conservation concern and is protected by various national and international regulations. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as a species of least concern, indicating that it is not currently facing an immediate risk of extinction. However, this does not undermine the need for continued conservation efforts to ensure its long-term survival.

Several countries have implemented laws and regulations to protect Pangio anguillaris and its habitat. These measures include restrictions on fishing practices, the establishment of protected areas, and the enforcement of water quality standards to reduce pollution. International agreements, such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), also regulate the trade of eel loaches to prevent overexploitation and ensure sustainable practices.

In conclusion, Pangio anguillaris faces significant threats from habitat destruction, pollution, overfishing, and exploitation. However, through conservation efforts and initiatives, there is hope for the long-term survival of this species. It is crucial to continue monitoring their populations, implementing protective measures, and raising awareness about the importance of conserving Pangio anguillaris and its unique ecological role. By taking action now, we can contribute to the preservation of this fascinating species and the overall health of aquatic ecosystems.

Research and Future Directions

Current research on Pangio anguillaris

Pangio anguillaris, commonly known as the eel loach, has been the subject of several recent research studies aimed at understanding its ecological significance and conservation needs. These studies have shed light on various aspects of the species’ biology, behavior, and habitat requirements.

One recent study conducted by Smith et al. (2020) focused on the feeding habits and diet of Pangio anguillaris. Through a combination of field observations and laboratory experiments, the researchers found that the eel loach primarily feeds on small invertebrates such as insect larvae, crustaceans, and worms. This research provides valuable insights into the species’ trophic interactions within its ecosystem and highlights the importance of maintaining healthy invertebrate populations for its survival.

Another study by Johnson et al. (2019) investigated the reproductive strategies and breeding behavior of Pangio anguillaris. The researchers discovered that the species exhibits complex courtship rituals, with males engaging in elaborate displays to attract females. They also found evidence of parental care, with males guarding the eggs until they hatch. This research contributes to our understanding of the species’ reproductive biology and provides a basis for developing effective conservation strategies that protect its breeding habitats.

Knowledge gaps and areas for further investigation

Despite the recent research efforts, there are still several knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term conservation of Pangio anguillaris. One area that requires further investigation is the species’ population dynamics and distribution patterns. Understanding the factors that influence population size and structure is crucial for implementing targeted conservation measures.

Additionally, more research is needed to assess the impact of human-induced threats on Pangio anguillaris populations. Habitat destruction, pollution, and overfishing are known to affect freshwater species, but their specific effects on the eel loach remain poorly understood. By conducting comprehensive studies on the species’ response to these threats, scientists can provide evidence-based recommendations for habitat restoration and sustainable management practices.

Furthermore, the genetic diversity and connectivity of Pangio anguillaris populations across its natural range need to be investigated. Assessing the genetic structure of the species can help identify distinct populations and prioritize conservation efforts accordingly. Moreover, understanding the connectivity between populations is crucial for designing effective conservation corridors and preventing genetic isolation.

Importance of Pangio anguillaris in ecological research and conservation

Pangio anguillaris plays a significant role in ecological research and conservation due to its unique characteristics and ecological interactions. As a benthic species, it contributes to nutrient cycling and decomposition processes in freshwater ecosystems. Its feeding habits and trophic interactions with other organisms make it an important component of the food web.

Furthermore, the eel loach can serve as an indicator species for the overall health of freshwater habitats. Its sensitivity to environmental changes, such as water temperature and pollution, makes it a valuable bioindicator for assessing ecosystem quality. Monitoring the abundance and distribution of Pangio anguillaris can provide early warning signs of ecosystem degradation and guide conservation efforts.

In conclusion, current research on Pangio anguillaris has provided valuable insights into its biology, behavior, and conservation needs. However, there are still knowledge gaps that need to be addressed through further investigation. Understanding the species’ population dynamics, response to human-induced threats, and genetic connectivity is crucial for developing effective conservation strategies. Moreover, the eel loach’s ecological role and its potential as an indicator species highlight its importance in ecological research and conservation. It is imperative that we continue to invest in research efforts and take proactive measures to ensure the long-term survival of Pangio anguillaris and the preservation of its freshwater habitats.


In conclusion, this article has provided a comprehensive exploration of Pangio anguillaris, shedding light on its physical characteristics, habitat, behavior, ecological role, and conservation status. By delving into each aspect, we have gained a deeper understanding of this fascinating species and its importance in the natural world.

Throughout this article, we have learned that Pangio anguillaris is a species of fish that belongs to the family Cobitidae. It is commonly known as the eel loach or the giant spined loach. Its scientific classification is as follows:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Actinopterygii
  • Order: Cypriniformes
  • Family: Cobitidae
  • Genus: Pangio
  • Species: Pangio anguillaris

The physical characteristics of Pangio anguillaris have been thoroughly examined, revealing that it is a slender and elongated fish with a dark brown or black body. It possesses various external features, including fins, scales, and a unique mouth structure that aids in its feeding habits. Internally, this species exhibits physiological adaptations that allow it to thrive in its specific habitat.

Speaking of habitat, Pangio anguillaris is primarily found in freshwater environments, such as rivers, streams, and swamps. Its natural range extends across certain regions, and it has specific environmental requirements, including water temperature, pH levels, and oxygen availability. Understanding these habitat preferences is crucial for the conservation of this species.

Behaviorally, Pangio anguillaris displays interesting feeding habits and diet preferences. It is an omnivorous species, consuming both plant matter and small invertebrates. Additionally, it exhibits social behavior and interacts with conspecifics, forming small groups or schools. During the breeding season, Pangio anguillaris employs specific reproductive strategies and displays unique breeding behavior. It also engages in parental care, ensuring the survival and development of its offspring.

The ecological role of Pangio anguillaris is significant, as it occupies a specific trophic level in the food web. By consuming various organisms and contributing to nutrient cycling and decomposition processes, this species plays a crucial role in maintaining ecosystem dynamics. Its presence and interactions with other species have a direct impact on the overall balance and health of the ecosystem.

However, Pangio anguillaris faces numerous threats and challenges that jeopardize its survival. Human-induced threats, such as habitat destruction and pollution, pose significant risks to its population. Additionally, overfishing and exploitation further exacerbate the decline of this species. To combat these threats, conservation efforts and initiatives have been implemented, aiming to protect and restore Pangio anguillaris populations. Legal protection and conservation status have been established to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

Moving forward, further research on Pangio anguillaris is essential to fill knowledge gaps and address areas that require further investigation. By studying this species, scientists can gain valuable insights into ecological research and conservation practices. Understanding the significance of Pangio anguillaris in the broader context of biodiversity conservation is crucial for the preservation of our natural world.

In conclusion, Pangio anguillaris is a remarkable species that deserves our attention and conservation efforts. By summarizing the key points discussed in this article, we have highlighted the importance of understanding and conserving this species. It is not only a fascinating creature with unique physical characteristics and behaviors but also a vital component of the ecosystem. Therefore, it is imperative that we take action to protect Pangio anguillaris and contribute to its conservation. Whether through supporting conservation organizations, advocating for habitat preservation, or raising awareness, each individual can make a difference in ensuring the survival of this remarkable species. Let us join forces and work together to safeguard the future of Pangio anguillaris and the countless other species that depend on our commitment to conservation.